DiseasesVomiting: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Vomiting: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

How vomiting is triggered?

Vomiting is scientifically known as “Emesis” also known as puking, throwing up is forcibly emptying of stomach contents through the mouth or sometimes nose voluntarily or involuntarily.

Most people often get confused between nausea and vomiting. Nausea is feeling an urge to vomit while vomit is the forceful expulsion of the stomach contents through the esophagus out of the mouth.

Vomiting is a one-time event due to indigestion or harmful substance and is often treated with home remedies but if it lasts for more than one day then you need to consult your doctor. As if you vomit frequently, it may be related to some underlying medical conditions and if left untreated can cause life-threatening effects.

Mechanism of vomit

The fourth ventricle of the brain has the vomiting center called a chemoreceptor trigger zone. When it is stimulated vomiting occurs. The chemoreceptor trigger zone commonly called CTZ is present outside the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) so it is not protected by BBB and drugs can stimulate the CTZ and cause vomiting. In this way, vomiting is triggered

Vomiting Causes and symptoms

It is commonly caused due to eating heavily or drinking too much alcohol. It is not a disease but a symptom of other diseases like:

  • Gastrointestinal diseases
  • Headache
  • Motion sickness
  • Food poisoning
  • Side effects of prescribed medicines
  • Infections
  • Anesthesia

The causes of this disease may differ for a different person depending upon their food habits and underlying disease conditions

A child may vomit due to overeating, motion sickness, milk allergy, and fever.

Adults may vomit due to food poisoning, gastritis, or infections.

Pregnant women can vomit which is related to morning sickness.

Read More: Stomach Gas: Causes


One of the most complications in vomiting is Dehydration as vomiting expels out the contents of the stomach along with fluids. Which can lead to dry mouth, fatigue decreased urination, and headache.

Dehydration is the most serious complication in the case of infants and young children as they can’t tell their parents about it so parents need to be very careful if their child is vomiting give them plenty of fluids to reverse the Dehydration.

If you are vomiting repeatedly due to eating disorders it can cause malnutrition, weight loss, ulcers in the stomach, esophagitis, etc.


It occurs usually to get rid of the harmful substances from the stomach and lasts for 1 to 2 days. In most cases you can treat it at home by taking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration, avoiding spicy and oily foods, eating fruits and vegetables. Take smaller meals until you feel better and drink fruit juice to increase the nutrients lost to vomit.

But when you’re vomiting for more than 2 days repeatedly and having symptoms like heartburn, severe abdominal pain, fever, headache, your vomit is green in color so you need to consult your doctor immediately. Your doctor may prescribe you some anti-emetics drugs which will help you reduce the episodes of repeated vomiting.


The signs that indicate that you are about to vomit are nausea (feeling an urge to vomit), overeating, choking, gaggling, involuntary stomach reflexes, exercising after eating, drinking too much alcohol, morning sickness in case of pregnant ladies, etc.

If you are feeling nauseated then lie down or sit down to prevent vomiting. And follow appropriate hand washing and hygiene measures to prevent repetitive vomit episodes.

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